Recapitulation of tenses

Conditional type 1: Possible condition for activity

Conditional type 2: Preferable condition

Conditional type 3: Impossible condition

a) He never goes to the theatre.
   I wash my hair once a week.
   We don't go to school on Sundays.
   They usually spend their holiday by
   the sea
   Do you ever walk to work?
b) My dog likes raw meat.
c) Ice melts in warm water.
d) We shall have lunch as soon as he
   I'll come and see you when I have a
   free moment.
e) He will come if you ivite him.
   I shan't go out unless the rain stops.
a) With always - never - often -
   sometimes - ever - usually - every
   day / week etc. - for habitual or
   general activities.

b) For general statements.
c) For facts.
d) After when - as soon as - before -
   until - while - the momentetc. when
   reffering to the future.

e) In conditional type 1 (with if - unless
   - in case - provided etc.)
a) He is writing a letter now.
   The rugby teams are playing well
   this season.
   Look! Jimmy is climbing over the
b) I'll make a cup of tea while you are
   washing up.
c) We are going to Hamburg next week.
   What are you doing tomorrow
a) With now - at present - this week/
   year etc.- today - at the moment -
   look!...- listen!...etc. for activities
   which are still in progress.
b) With while etc. when reffering to the
c) For planned future activities.
a) I heard the news an hour ago.
   We didn't go away for a holiday last
   He arrived here last Tuesday.
   Did you go out yesterday?
b) It was raining when we left the
c) If I had a car, I'd drive to France.
d) He said that it was cold ("It's
e) I wish I had a car.
   It's time we went home.
   I'd rather you didn't do that.
a) With yesterday - last week/month
   etc.- om Monday etc.- in 1975 etc.
   - ...ago etc.(for a past action at a
   known time.
b) With continuous past + when etc.
c) In conditional type 2
d) In reported speech.

e) With expression like I wish.../ It's
   time.../ I'd rather...
a) While we were playing tennis last
   Sunday, it began to rain.
   I dropped a glass yesterday, while I
   drying it
b) While Betty was cooking the lunch
   yesterday, her husband was water-
   ing the garden and her children were
   doing their homework.
c) He said that it was raining. ("It's
a) With while - as soon as - when etc. to
   indicate that an activity was in pro-
   gress in the past when another activity
b) With while etc. for two or more activi-
   ties that were in progress at the same
   time in the past.
c) In reported speech.
a) I have read this bok.
   She has been to England.
b) He has often been to London.
   I have never met him.
   Has he written to you lately?
   Have you finished yet?
   I haven't seenn her recently.
   We have done two exercises so far.
c) We have known him since 1976.
   She has had her car for two years.

d) It's the first time(that) I have visited
e) This is the best mark he has ever had.
f) It's 10 a.m.I have written two letters this
   It's Tuesday. we have done a lot of
   work this week.
g) There's no milk left. Who has drunk
   She's alone. Her parents have gone
h) I'll lend you the book when I have
   finished with it.
   Don't hand in your work until you
   have checked it
a) For a past action at
   an unknown time.
b) With just - ever - never - often -
   severel/many times - once/twice etc.
   - (not) yet - already - recently/
   lately - so far/(up) till now etc.

c) For activities that began in the past
   and continue to the present moment
   - with for/since etc.
d) With the expression it's the first/
   second etc. time that
e) With superlative + ever
f) With today - this week etc. if the
   period of time hasn't passed.

g) To explain tha past cause of a present

h) After when - as soon as - after -
   before - until etc. when reffering to an
   activity which will be completed in the
a) She has been waiting for the bus
   since nine o'clock.
   We have been living here for the last
   five years.
b) He has been working hard, so he's
   The boys are hot because they have
   been playing football.
a) For ana ctivity which began in the
   past, is continuing now and will possi-
   bly continue in the future - with for,
   since etc.
b) To explain the past cause of a present
a) They had been in Kenitra for two
   years when their baby was born.
   We have met Jane last week.We hadn't
   seen her since 1975.
b) I was intriduced to George last
   week. I had never met him before.
   The train had already left when we
   got to the station.
c) As soon as he had finished his work,
   he went to bed.
d) He said that he had done it the day
   before.("I did it yesterday")
   They said that they had already
   finished ("We have already
e) He was unconscious. Somebody had
   attacked him.
f) I wish I had gone to bed earlier
g) If he had known, he wouldn't have
a) For activities that began in the past
   and continued to another moment in
   the past ( with since - for etc.)
b) With before - just - ever - never -
   already - (up) till then - when etc.
   (N.B. used with the simple past)
c) To indicate the first of two past
d) In reported speech

e) To explain the previous cause of a past
f) With the expressions  I wish, if only...

g) In conditional type 3.
a) They had already been playing for
   ten minutes when we got to the

b) He said that he had been working
   too hard. ("I have been working
   too hard")
   They said that they had been living
   in London until then.
   ("We were living in London until
c) The boys were hot as they had been
   playing football.
a) For an activity which began in the past
   and was still continuing at a later
   moment in the past (with since - for
b) In reported speech

c) To explain the previous cause of a past
a) Tomorrow will be Monday
   I shall be eighteen on my next
b) He will come if we invite him.
a) For future events which are not in-
   fluenced by intention or willingness.
b) In conditional type 1.
   We are going to help our friends to
   move house.
   Used to refer to the future result of a
   present intention.
a) We shall be going to Paris
   next April./We will be...
   They will be studying English at
   university next year.
b) We shall be waiting for them when
   they arrive/We will be...
   They will still be having their supper
   When we get there.
a) For future activities that are planned.

b) For activities which will begin before
   and continue after a point of time in
   the future.
a) By this time next year we shall/will
   have left school.
   He will have read all five books by
   the end of this week.
a) To indicate a completed action in the
a) When they take their degree, they
   will have been studying English for seven
a) To indicate an action which will be
   continuous untill a future time.
Use of WOULD
a) He would come if we invited him.
b) She said that she would go.("I shall
   I will go")
c) I wish he would stop smoking.
d) Would you like to come to the
   cinema with me tomorrow?
e) When he was young, he would often
   spend the weekend with us.
a) In conditional type 2.
b) In reported speech.
c) In expressions with wish
d) In certain expressions referring to the
e) Referring to habitual occurrences of a
   past activity.
a) He would have come if we had
   invited him.
b) They said that they would have
   finished it by Sunday.("We shall
   have finished it by Sunday."
a) In conditional type 3
b) In reported speech.       

Conditional type 1: Possible condition for activity

Conditional type 2: Preferable condition

Conditional type 3: Impossible condition

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